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Como se lapida um diamante?

O diamante não é somente matéria prima para as mais delicadas e sofisticadas jóias mas também é nada menos do que a substância mais dura conhecida pelo homem. 
Os diamantes que encontramos hoje na realidade se formaram há cerca de 100.000.000 anos atrás, quando o planeta estava em seu primeiro estágio de resfriamento.
Nesse processo, uma camada de rocha líquida foi submetida a uma intensa pressão e calor, e então partículas de carbono se condensaram em fragmentos altamente cristalizados. Essa extrema pressão a que tais partículas foram submetidas é que a tornaram a substância mais dura conhecida na natureza.
Há duas formas de cortar o diamante bruto: 
* clivagem, que é o método mais comum. O diamante é partido com um rápido golpe. Em algumas pedras, porém, essa técnica não funciona. Usa-se, então, a
* serragem, processo longo e tedioso, feito com uma serra elétrica rotatória ou, mais recentemente, com raios laser. Ocorre pelo atrito das partes menos duras do diamante com um rolo de metal cuja superfície tem uma camada de pó de diamante de 1 vigésimo de milímetro de espessura. Os materiais de igual dureza não se cortam e nem se riscam, mas como o grau de resistência da pedra varia em muitos pontos, o pó acaba agindo nas partes mais fracas. O processo é longo: para uma pedra de 1 quilate (6 a 7 milímetros de diâmetro) são necessárias de 5 a 8 horas de trabalho.
Depois do corte, vem a etapa do bloqueamento, em que o diamante é raspado em outro até que se aproxime do formato desejado. 
As facetas (como são chamadas as várias pequenas faces de um diamante) são feitas na etapa seguinte, chamada de abrilhantamento. A pedra é encaixada na ponta de uma vareta chamada dop e pressionada contra um disco giratório forrado de pó de diamante. 
Em geral, os brilhantes pequenos são lapidados em um único dia. Já nas pedras grandes (acima de 20 gramas) esse trabalho pode levar até mais de um ano!

Você sabia que: diamantes não são naturalmente tão brilhantes? Na realidade é a maneira com a qual eles são lapidados que os torna tão belos, refletindo tanta luz em cada uma de suas facetas. Um diamante utilizado para fazer um brilhante tem geralmente 58 facetas, que são lapidadas utilizando-se um disco de aço girando em alta velocidade com sua borda coberta de pó de diamante e óleo.

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